After months of speculation, the Government has finally unveiled its plans to force motorists to ditch petrol and diesel cars and only drive electric models.
Called the Road to Zero strategy, it sets out the policies ministers hope will drive the nation’s 45 million motorists into zero-emissions vehicles over the next three decades.
While many of the changes are focused around the 2040 proposed ban on the sale of new petrol and diesel motors and the optimistic prediction for an entirely electric road network just a decade later, some of the strategies are already in place today.
Road to Zero: Here is five ways the Government plans to switch motorists to electric vehicles in 2040 under new directives outlines in the Department for Transports latest proposals
Part of the transition to everyone driving electric cars in 2050 includes the target of at least half of new cars sold in 2030 being ultra low emissions models, including pure electric and plug-in hybrid cars.
Mike Hawes, chief executive at the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, said the prospect of this being achieved was slim, as car makers could not accelerate the technology at such a rate.
‘Achieving 50 per cent market share would require a nearly 23-fold increase in uptake from the current position of just 2.2 per cent,’ he said.
‘We need realistic ambition levels and measures that support industry’s efforts, allow manufacturers time to invest, innovate and sell competitively, and provide the right incentives and infrastructure to take the consumer with us.’
While the SMMT wasn’t the only body to voice concerns about the strategy, the Road to Zero documentation confirmed that the plan will be reviewed in 2025, which could include revised strategies if not enough progress is being made in the switch-over to electrified cars.
Here are five focal points of the Government’s intention to make make a graduated switch to a low-emissions road network.
1. Reduce emissions of vehicles we’re driving today
Any car showing visible smoke from it’s exhaust will automatically fail the recently revised MOT. Any diesel car with a particulate filter that’s been tampered with or removed will also fail
While the end goal is for all motorists to be sat at the wheel of electric cars in 2050, the Government wants to initiate changes immediately that will curb the level of toxic pollution produced by vehicles.
This includes supplying low-carbon fuels that will reduce the toxic outputs of the cars we currently use.
Another part of the plan is the already-in-place MOT rules that were introduced in May with more stringent restrictions regarding emissions.
This includes the automatic failure of any vehicle producing visible smoke from it’s exhaust pipe and diesel models originally supplied with pollution-reducing particulate filters that have had them tampered with or removed altogether.
There are also plans for research to be undertaken to measure the level of particulate emissions from tyres, brakes and road wear to understand if further toxic reductions can be made.
2. Continue to offer incentives to buy electric cars (but not necessarily with grants)
There are just 38 models that currently qualify for the Plug-in Car Grant. It is only available with the existing rates until October 2018 and could be pulled completely after 2020
The Plug-in Car Grant, which was introduced in 2011, has been extended and revised since then, with the current rates being offered due to expire in October this year.
According to the Department for Transport, the grant has been used to purchase more than 150,000 vehicles in the last seven years.
The Government will continue to offer the grant until 2020, though it could reduce the subsidies offered when the existing rates are revised in three months.
The scheme offers up to £4,500 off pure-electric new cars and a lower subsidy of £2,500 for plug-in hybrid models.
And it looks as though the incentive will be reduced or pulled altogether after 2020.
The Road to Zero document states: ‘As the market becomes better established and more competitive, the need for direct government financial support will decrease.
‘We therefore expect to deliver a managed exit from the grant in due course and to continue to support the uptake of ultra low emission vehicles through other measures.’
Models that currently qualify for the plug-in car grant
CATEGORY 1 CARS – £4,500 OFF PURCHASE PRICE
These vehicles have CO2 emissions of less than 50g/km and can travel at least 112km (70 miles) without any CO2 emissions at all.
BMW i3 and i3s
Hyundai IONIQ Electric
Kia Soul EV
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive
Nissan e-NV200 (5-seater and 7-seater)
Smart EQ fortwo
Smart EQ forfour
Tesla Model S
Tesla Model X
CATEGORY 2 CARS – £2,500 OFF PURCHASE PRICE
Category 2 cars These vehicles have CO2 emissions of less than 50g/km and can travel at least 16km (10 miles) without any CO2 emissions at all.
Audi A3 e-tron
Hyundai IONIQ PHEV
Kia Niro PHEV
Kia Optima PHEV
Mercedes-Benz C350 e (with 17 inch rear wheels)
Mercedes-Benz E350 e SE
Mitsubishi Outlander (except Commercial)
Toyota Prius Plug-in
Volkswagen Golf GTE
Volkswagen Passat GTE
Volvo S90 Twin Engine
Volvo V60 D5 Twin Engine
Volvo V60 D6 Twin Engine
Volvo V90 Twin Engine
Volvo XC60 Twin Engine
CATEGORY 3 CARS – £2,500 OFF PURCHASE PRICE
These vehicles have CO2 emissions of 50 to 75g/km and can travel at least 32km (20 miles) without any CO2 emissions at all.
Mercedes-Benz E350 e AMG Line
MINI Countryman PHEV
The SMMT said the plug-in car grants need to be maintained ‘at least at the current rate’ beyond 2020.
‘Evidence shows that prematurely removing upfront purchase incentives before the market is mature can have a devastating impact on demand,’ commented Mike Hawes.
‘Consistent and technology-neutral incentives are needed if government’s extremely high ambition levels are to be met.’
The Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme is also due to be reviewed next year
Other motoring bodies voiced similar concerns.
AA president, Edmund King, added: ‘We will still need financial incentives beyond 2020 to act as catalyst for further investment in electric vehicles and infrastructure.’
The RAC suggested readjusting the recently updated VAT car tax rates to make hybrid vehicles more inviting as a stepping-stone to electric cars.
Head of roads policy, Nicholas Lyes, said: ‘Changes to the car tax system last year arguably made it less attractive to buy a plug-in hybrid vehicle – which is odd, given the government’s recognition that these vehicles are a crucial stepping stone to an all-electric vehicle.
‘There is a strong argument for looking at new incentives to help make the purchase price as comparable to similar sized conventional equivalents – perhaps by way of a VAT discount or even an exemption on them.’
The Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme (EVHS) will also continue in its current form – with a grant of £500 – until March 2019, or until 30,000 installations have been supported.
Again, the strategy will review grant levels with a view to removing financial support for having plug-in points installed at homes as uptake increases and the market becomes self-sustaining.
3. Boost the charging infrastructure
The Government will use a £400million fund to boost the charging infrastructure up and down the country, including at motorway services
While offering grants to help retrofit homes with charging points might be scaled back, the Government has proposed to fit all new houses, flats and offices with charge points.
It will also tap into the £400million Charging Infrastructure Investment Fund pledged last year to boost the availability of electric vehicle chargers at motorway services, fuel retailers and on our streets using existing street lights.
4. Improve the aftersale network for electric vehicles
One of the biggest concerns among the industry until now is that just one per cent of mechanics in the country are trained to work on hybrid and electric vehicles.
The Road to Zero proposal appears to favour the conversion of street lamps into public charge points
In a bid to improve this, the Road to Zero strategy outlines intentions to work with the Institute of the Motor Industry (IMI) to ensure the nation’s garages have technicians that are well-trained and have the skills and qualifications required to repair ultra-low emissions vehicles appropriately.
Steve Nash, chief Executive at the IMI, said earlier this year: ‘The IMI has outlined three recommendations for the government to consider when it comes to supporting the automotive retail sector’s transition from internal combustion engines to advanced Hybrid and Electric powered vehicles.
‘The risk to health and safety is very real and needs to be addressed with urgency.
‘It is also vital that the regulatory mechanisms are in place to support businesses that will come into contact with these vehicles and will be made to defer business because of the lack of skills.’
5. Focus on other major polluters – HGVs, buses and taxis
Charging points that will be solely available to taxis will be installed as part of a strategy to convince cabbies to make the switch to electric vehicles
The plan outlines efforts to retrofit buses, coaches and HGVs with emissions-reducing technology, though only for the short term as solutions for these vehicles to be powered by electric motors and batteries are explored.
Highways England will be tasked with identifying and assessing zero emissions technology that’s suitable for HGV traffic, with almost all of these vehicles powered by heavily-polluting diesel engines.
The Government also pledged to work with the industry to develop an ultra low emissions standard for trucks, propose changes to VED tax rates for vans (similar to those imposed on passenger car drivers), fulfill its £48million low emissions bus scheme and invest in dedicated taxi charging points to encourage cabbies to make the switch.
More reaction to the Road to Zero strategy
Ian Plummer, director at car sales site Auto Trader: ‘The switch to electric will require a wholesale shift in public mindset, and for that we need a significant boost of supply side factors to build consumer confidence in electric and hybrid models.
‘For alternatively fuelled vehicles (AFVs) to deliver ‘mainstream’ type volumes and become the norm, they need to have ‘mainstream’ type pricing.
‘Until attractive AFVs are available at a similar cost to petrol or diesel models, consumer uptake is likely to remain limited to the most environmentally-minded early adopters and city dwellers feeling the negative regulatory pressures more than most.’
Mike Hawes, SMMT chief executive: ‘Government must provide the conditions to encourage consumer demand, while the market determines and industry delivers the appropriate technological solutions.
‘With no one clear technology winner at this early stage, we are pleased policy makers have listened to industry’s calls to avoid prescriptive measures, which would hamper innovation and hold progress back, recognising that the transition should be led by industry and consumers.’
Morten Thaysen, clean air campaigner at Greenpeace: ‘The car industry should be in the doghouse for its diesel pollution and stalling emissions reductions. But instead of being pulled up, it’s yet again being given a free pass from the government to carry on business as usual.
‘A 2040 target is already weak by international standards, and should be a decade earlier to deliver any incentive to the car industry and make a dent in transport emissions.
‘We need 100 per cent ultra-low emission car and van sales by 2030, not the limp 30 per cent minimum for cars offered by the government today.’
Dustin Benton, policy director at Green Alliance: ‘It’s rare for the oil industry, mayors and environmentalists to agree on something, but we all think 2040 is far too late for a ban on conventional vehicles.
‘Moving it to 2030 and setting a zero emissions vehicles mandate, as both China and California have done, would encourage car companies to build electric cars in the UK, and give the country a head start on its competitors across Europe.
‘While there are some welcome measures, including on charging infrastructure, the Road to Zero strategy is on cruise control. As it stands, it won’t help the UK build a world leading clean automotive industry.’